Usually, law is the body of rules enforceable by governmental institutions. This includes administrative, judicial, legislative, and executive. Law shapes society, politics, and economics. It is a system that serves as a mediator between people and their relations.
In the modern era, there are two major legal systems. They are common law and civil law. They both have many common features. However, their systems are not identical. The common law system is characterized by the doctrine of precedent, the rule that judicial decisions of one court are bindable by future courts.
The common law system also incorporates the doctrine of analogy. This means that judicial decisions of one court are derived from the laws of the other courts. In some cases, the court will hear both sides of a controversy in court, and will thus be able to determine which laws are relevant. These laws are generally based on the rules of the Quran or Ijma. However, these rules are interpreted through analogy, which is the same process used to derive further law from the Quran.
Unlike common law systems, civil law systems are characterized by less detailed judicial decisions. In these systems, a court may decide a case on the basis of undisputed evidence, or on the basis of a legal issue. These issues may be complex, or may not even be obvious.
Legal issues can be caused by unexpected events, family issues, planned events, problems at work, or by being accused of a crime. However, they are not always obvious, and may require the help of a lawyer to find an answer.
The legal system can be divided into three categories: common law, civil law, and international law. These categories are sometimes confused with one another, but they are not mutually exclusive. Common law systems can be further divided into the following categories: land law, admiralty law, maritime law, commercial law, criminal law, and administrative law.
The most complex type of property law is land law. It covers such issues as rental agreements, mortgages, real property, covenants, and the rights and duties of the owners of property. It also addresses the rights of foreigners to work and live in a nation-state.
Commercial law covers complex contract law and the law of agency. In addition to these areas, the law covers property law and family law. This includes such topics as rights to money, family rights, and marriage and divorce proceedings. It also includes the rights to social insurance, such as social security. It also covers banking law, tax law, and regulation.
Competition law refers to businesses that distort market prices. It also includes laws that regulate the conduct of businesses and the rules governing business transactions. This includes laws that set standards of fair contractual terms, airline baggage insurance, and value added tax. It also includes the US Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), which codifies common law commercial principles.
International law can refer to either public international law (law governing the relationships between nations) or private international law (law governing the relationships between individuals). The latter category includes international agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the United Nations Convention Against Corruption. It can also refer to international law pertaining to supranational organizations.